Does tall man lettering work?

First of all, is it tall man, tall-man, or tallman? And why is it called “tall man lettering” when none of the letters are actually taller than the others? Heck if I know. Just more questions in a mountain of questions piling up around tallMAN lettering.

Pharmacy Practice News: “[The study] found that there hasn’t been a substantial drop in drug name mix-ups since use of tall man lettering became widespread around 2007… “We saw no reassuring trend of declining rates of errors,” said study author Chris Feudtner, MD, PhD, MPH, a pediatrician at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine, in Philadelphia…If tall man lettering were working, the researchers expected to see a significant decrease in these types of errors after 2007 when the JC began recommending that hospitals implement tall man lettering and other typographic drug safety measures. No such drop was seen.”

The entire use of TaLlMaN lettering has always seemed odd to me. I could never understand how it would keep anyone from grabbing the wrong medication. I mean seriously, who in their right mind would confuse SUMAtriptan with ZOLMitriptan, or ARIPiprazole with RABEprazole. Crud, they’re not even remotely close when one considers the alphabet. When searching for the drug within a CPOE system one types “sum…” or “zol…”, not “…triptan. C’mon, people!

One classic mix up is hydrOXYzine and hydrALAzine. They definitely have similar names, but the former is an antihistamine used to treat itching, while the latter lowers blood pressure by exerting a vasodilating effect through a direct relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, i.e. it’s a blood pressure medication. Why the heck would anyone want to use a blood pressure medication to treat itching? They wouldn’t.

Perhaps it would make more sense to simply put the drug class or use on the packaging. You know, hydroxyzine [antihistamine/itching] or hydralazine [vasodilator/blood pressure]. Better yet, let’s require prescribers to place an indication on all orders: hydroxyzine 25mg PO Q6H PRN ITCHING versus hydralazine 25mg PO Q6H FOR BLOOD PRESSURE. Might even be educational for some prescribers.(1)

How about we spend a little time creating smart EHR’s that know when something is amiss?(2) A system that won’t let the provider select a medication for an inappropriate indication without jumping through some hoops. Something like “You sure about this, bruh? Hydralazine isn’t typically used for itching. Were you trying to prescribe hydroxyzine?”(3)

Now combine smart prescribing practices like those above with safety measures in the pharmacy like barcode scanning for verification. Selecting the wrong medication in the pharmacy is always possible and happens for a host of reasons, regardless of t.a.l.l.m.a.n lettering. Barcode scanning is a pretty good way to help ensure that you have the prescribed medication in hand.

Overall, I’m not surprised that T-A-L-L-M-A-N lettering didn’t make much of a difference in the study. Even though it’s become a standard of practice, I don’t know that I’ve ever bought into it. My preference would be to use better technology with a little common sense.

If you’re interested in reading the article (BMJ Qual Saf 2016;25[4]:213-217; BMJ Qual Saf 2015 Dec 16. [Epub ahead of print]), it can be found here.

 

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(1)    You might be surprised to find out how little some practitioners know about the medications they prescribe. I constantly appalled by the prescribing practices that I see in the acute care setting.

(2)    Something like AI or ML, perhaps. Hmm…

(3)    That’s kind of how the call goes when you have to let a prescriber know they may have inadvertently selected the wrong drug.

Can “a computer” take over for a pharmacist?

Two things happened to me recently that have pushed this question to the front of my mind.

IBM_Watson

The first is by way of some comments that were left in response to something I wrote in June about Google’s new symptom search. The comment is as follows:

“...I have to question your closing statement: The idea of such a vast amount of knowledge at one’s fingertips is mind boggling, to say the least. Google, like any reference, has “information”, but I’m not sure if I would classify it as a “vast amount of knowledge”. Actually, knowledge on the part of the reader is what is required to make sense of the information that a source like this provides. The ability to interpret drug literatures only comes with education, training, and experience…

The second item comes from a Reddit thread that I got involved with a few days ago. In the thread a user asks whether or not a pharmacist could be replaced “by a computer” in another 20 years. I argued that it could certainly happen. Someone countered by saying that it couldn’t happen because “the evaluation side, the interpretation of a patient, taking it’s [sic] history into account” couldn’t be done by decision-making software.

Depending on which side of the fence you’re on, there is potential for some good discussion here.

As I see it, information by itself holds little value. Having the skills to apply information to a given situation, i.e. “having knowledge”* makes all the difference in the world. Many think that it is this that makes humans indispensable in certain roles, like pharmacists. However, don’t be too quick to dismiss the ability of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) to mimic the actions of a human, especially in healthcare. Both AI and ML are powerful tools that can be used to appropriately apply information to any given situation. If a piece of software is able to use ML and AI to apply information to a situation based on past experience, doesn’t this become “knowledge”? I think it does.

This is what pharmacists do throughout their career – take what they’ve learned, add it to what they’ve experienced, and apply it to a given situation – and why seasoned veterans are so valuable. It’s not that they’re smarter than their younger counterparts; it’s that they’ve been around longer and seen more. The knowledge gained by veteran pharmacists is often the difference between making average decisions and making great decisions. As pharmacists practice, they gain more knowledge.  As time goes by it becomes increasingly rare to see new situations. I’m sure that computers can take information and combine it with previous actions and outcomes to make decisions. They do it all the time.

Not all knowledge requires depth of logic and “freedom of thought”. Take for example a pharmacist that gains knowledge by reading through a new set of treatment guidelines, or a journal article, or by attending a conference lecture. After digesting the information – use drug x in this situation – the pharmacist is ready to apply it. This is one of the things that make pharmacists better as clinicians over time, i.e. learning new things from others. Can’t a computer use the same information and be given parameters from which to apply it? Sure. How is that different from a human pharmacist? On the surface it’s not.

So while I understand the desire for pharmacists to push back on the idea of being taken over by computers, I fundamentally disagree. I believe that 80% of what pharmacists do right now could be successfully emulated by a combination of technologies. Decisions made by pharmacists rarely require some special power of observation. Most are actually pretty cut and dry. What about those times that require a judgement call? That’s the other 20%. And while I think you need a pharmacist to make those calls today, I don’t think it will be long before technology can do the same thing. After all, most judgment calls are simply something learned plus experience. Computers may not be able to think on their own, but they can certainly take information, search for a previous encounter, and “make a decision”.

Obviously this is just my opinion, take it for what it’s worth.

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*one definition of knowledge – “facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject.”

ISMP releases new medication safety best practices document

I quite literally stumbled across this the other day while doing research for another project. I heard that ISMP had updated their best practices document, but didn’t see an official announcement. It’s possible I just missed it.

ISMP_Best_Practices

The document contains some great new safety recommendations. All in all there are eleven best practices listed. Most of the recommendations are what I would consider minor, but there are a couple that I think are worth highlighting:

Dispensing vinCRIStine in a minibag instead of a syringe. This is one of those ideas that seems so simple, yet brilliant. When you read it, you instantly say to yourself “why didn’t I think of that?”. VinCRIStine is commonly dispenses in a syringe and given via short IV push. However, being dispensed in a syringe has led to the accidental administration of the drug via the intrathecal route. The result is devastating neurological damage, up to and including death. By simply putting the drug in a minibag, you effectively eliminate the possibility of it being administered intrathecally.

Performing independent verification of ingredients during sterile compounding. This includes a recommendation to use technology to “assist in the verification process (e.g., barcode scanning verification of ingredients, gravimetric verification, robotics, IV workflow software) to augment the manual processes.” I believe this is the first official document from an organization to include such a recommendation. Congratulations to ISMP for having the resolve to do this. ASHP needs to follow suite.

More information can be found here: 2016-2017 Targeted Medication Safety Best Practices for Hospitals [PDF]

Deactivation, Decontamination, Cleaning, and Disinfection of sterile HD compounding areas

USP <800> has an entire section dedicated to deactivation, decontamination, cleaning, and disinfecting areas that are used for compounding sterile hazardous drugs (HDs).

The chapter calls for:

  • Establishing written procedures
  • Training personnel
  • Using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) resistant to cleaning agents. This includes the use of two pairs of chemo gloves and impermeable disposable gowns
  • Using eye protection and face shields required if splashing is likely
  • Using respiratory protection if warranted
  • Using wetted wipes and not spray bottles to deliver agents for deactivation, decontamination, and cleaning
  • Proper disposal of all materials used

Deactivation – Renders the compound inert or inactive. Residue from deactivation must be removed through decontamination (see below). There is no single method for deactivating all known compounds.

Decontamination – Inactivating, neutralizing, or physically removing HD residue from non-disposable surfaces via wipes, pads or towels. This includes work surfaces and under work trays where residue may collect.

Cleaning – Process to remove contaminants – organic and inorganic material – from objects and surfaces using water, detergents, surfactants, solvents, and/or other chemicals. Cleaning may not be performed while compounding activities are occurring.

Disinfection – Process of inhibiting or destroying microorganisms. Required for surfaces where sterile compounding occurs.

Most of the above is common sense. While it may seem complicated, most pharmacies will simply purchase kits designed to walk them through the process. An example of a kit used to meet USP <800> requirements is WipeDown 1-2-3 by Valtek Associates. I’m sure there are others as well.

The WipeDown 1-2-3 product description can be seen below. Notice that the kit contains numbered packets designed to walk you through the process, i.e. Packet #1 – deactivation, Packet #2 – decontamination, Packet #3 – disinfecting/cleaning. Pretty straightforward.

WipeDown 1-2-3 is a sterile 3 step application wipe kit, that when used in sequence, provides deactivation, decontamination, and disinfection/cleaning of sterile compounding surfaces from most hazardous drugs. WipeDown 1-2-3 satisfies both USP compounding sterile preparations and USP hazardous drugs – handling in healthcare settings.
Each Sterile WipeDown 1-2-3 kit includes:

  • Packet #1 – HYPO-CHLOR®, 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite for deactivation
  • Packet #2 – THIO-WIPE, 2% USP Thiosulfate for decontamination
  • Packet #3 – ALCOH-WIPE®, 70% USP Isopropyl Alcohol for disinfecting/cleaning